The most pervasive disease of all times, obesity is badly in the need of advanced strategies and facilities for treatment and prevention. Obesity has poorly stained the healthcare system of the United States by becoming the leading reason of the country's disability, increased death rates, morbidity, and utilization of health care services and cost of these services.
The Meaning of Obesity
The excessive collection of adipose tissues in the body leads to obesity. There are many methods and processes to determine that a number of adipose tissues in the body have exceeded the normal number. One of the most common methods is BMI or Body Mass Index (Read Below). Adipose tissue is made up of a number of fat cells. Each fat cell is technically an endocrine cell which makes the adipose tissue an endocrine organ. Being an endocrine organ, adipose tissue is responsible for secreting a number of substances like lipids, metabolites, coagulation factors and cytokines among many more products. Therefore, excessive adipose tissues lead to an increase in the level of fatty acids and inflammation which in turn causes obesity. Also, obesity can make the body insulin resistant and cause Type 2 Diabetes, that is, Diabetes Mellitus.
Normally, people believe that excessive food and overeating are the only reasons of causing obesity. But, it should be known that the process of food intake is the most complex in humans than any other living being. The biology of food in the body involves taste, smell, temperature, autonomic information, emotional responses, texture and metabolic information. These feelings and sensations signal the brain to begin or stop eating. Many scientific surveys and studies that have been done in the past few years have proved that there are many factors and substances that are responsible for signaling the brain to increase eating ,and, in the same way, many substances signal the brain to stop the intake of food.
The problem of obesity has affected more than 1/3 of the adult population in the U.S., which means that approximately 788.64 million Americans suffer from obesity. The number of people suffering from obesity has rapidly increased since 1960. According to a survey done in 2016, 69% of the population of U.S. is affected by obesity and are over- weight.
A survey done by the CDC states that nearly 114,000 deaths occur every year due to obesity. Obesity is deadlier than 30 chronic diseases that can occur to a person at the same time. The 30 chronic diseases can be hypertension, type 2 diabetes, gallstones, high cholesterol, heart disease, sleep apnea, fatty liver disorder, GERD, heart failure, birth defects, stress incontinence, degenerative joint disease, asthma, miscarriages , other respiratory disorders ,and many types of cancers.
A total of more than $190 billion every year is spent on the healthcare of the American adults who are affected by obesity. Fat people are often discriminated and mistreated by the society. Even today, when the world has advanced a lot, obesity is often treated as socially unacceptable. This is the sad reality of the world.
,Obesity is increasing at an alarming rate in the world. The problem of a high body mass index is counted among the major heath issues around the globe like high blood pressure, malnutrition in children and females, high cholesterol, iron deficiency, unprotected sex, smoking and drinking, and impure and dirty water.
Body Mass Index
The Body Mass Index, or, BMI of a person is calculated mathematically by involving the weight and height of an individual, ignoring his family background, age, race or sex. Body Mass Index is calculated by diving the body weight ( in Kgs), of a person, by his height (in meter squared). The units can also be converted to Pounds (lbs) and inches squared respectively. However, the calculation may vary or be misleading for a person with a very heavy or muscular body or for a pregnant or breast- feeding woman.
Treatment of Obesity